Newcastle upon Tyne, , is a city and metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, North East England, situated on the north bank of the River Tyne and centred 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea.

It is the most populous city in North East England. The city lies at the urban core of the Tyneside conurbation, which is the seventh most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom and the most populous in the North East region.

The city grew up in the area that was the location of the Roman settlement called Pons Aelius, and it owes its name to the castle built in 1080, by Robert (II), Duke of Normandy, “Curthose”, William the Conqueror’s eldest son.

The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the river, was amongst the world’s largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.

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